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The East European Craton (EEC) comprises Precambrian rocks of the Baltic, Ukraine and Voronezh shields, together with the Russian or East European Platform, where the EEC is covered by relatively thin, undisturbed, Phanerozoic rock sequences.

The oldest Precambrian basement provinces of western and central Europe, therefore, comprise the East European and Hebridean cratons, the stable Cadomian blocks of the London Platform and the East Silesian Massif, and the Caledonian, Variscan and Alpine fold belts.

The boundaries between the principal structural elements of the European continental elements are in places poorly defined, partly as a result of a lack of data, and partly because they are concealed by younger rocks.

The outer region of the Earth, or lithosphere, includes the crust and the upper mantle, and is a rheologically more rigid layer lying above a more plastic layer of the upper mantle, known as the asthenosphere.

The lithosphere is divided into several major tectonic plates that move relative to one another, and interact and deform, especially around their margins.

Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava, Slovak Republic The geological record of Europe extends back in time to about 3,500 million years, approximately 1,000 million years after the Earth was formed. The first writers who have contributed something of geological significance were the ancient Greek philosophers (Adams 1954), such as Thales of Miletus (c.636-546 BC), Anaximander of Miletus (615-547 BC), Pythagoras of Samos (540-510 BC), Xenophanes of Colophon (540-510 BC), Herodotus of Halicarnassus (480-420?

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